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Ancient Falaj Systems

A falaj in Oman refers to water that runs through a channel dug in the earth. The source of falaj water is groundwater found in the subsoil or valleys. The plural of the word ‘falaj’ used in Oman is ‘aflaj’, which is a comprehensive term used to denote a system of irrigation. The falaj is an original Omani irrigation system, deep-rooted in the country’s land and history.

The Falaj Irrigation System relies on water stored underground. It is extracted in a simple manner without the use of machines, and is then used in agriculture and all other essential uses. The aflaj are divided into three main types:

Dawoodi Falaj:
These are long channels dug underground that run for several kilometres. Their depth usually reaches up to tens of metres, so water is present in these channels all year round. 

Ghaili Falaj:
These falaj receive their water from ponds or running water. Their depths do not exceed 3-4 metres. Water quantities increase in these falaj directly after rainfall and usually dry up quickly during extended dry periods.

Ayni Falaj:
These falaj draw their water directly from the springs (wells), including hot springs. The importance of these falaj depends on their water quality, which varies between hot and cold, and between fresh drinking water, saline water, and between alkaline water mixed with valley water, considered suitable for agriculture. There is another kind of spring that contains varying proportions of mineral salts suitable for water treatments and therapies.
The most important of these falaj are: Falaj Ayn Al Kasfah in Wilayt Ar Rustaq, Falaj Al Hamam in Wilayt Bawshar  This last falaj appears on the World Heritage List.

Nizwa, Oman

Ras Al Jinz Beach

The beach is about 60 kilometres from Sur City, the capital of the A'Shariqiyah South Governorate. This beach has been home to human activity since the third millennium BC and serves as a safe haven for ships from storms. Fighter planes took shelter in it in during World War II and the marks of the runways still exist today.

This beach has been proclaimed a turtle reserve. Turtles come here, especially to Ras Al Jinz beach in Wilayt Ras AlHadd, to lay an estimated number of from 6,000 to 13,000 eggs. The beach is distinguished by its spectacular bays and rock formations which are havens for large numbers of birds.

Ras Al Jinz, Oman

Dhofar Beaches

DHOFAR Governorate is characterised by attractive and rich beaches. There are plenty of lagoons crowded with flamingos, as well as caves with winding entrances. The Governorate’s most important beaches are Al Maghsayl,  Raysut, Al Hafah, and the shores of Wilayat Taqah, Mirbat and Sha, noted for the purity of their sands and the beauty of their surrounding rocks and scenic nature. There are a number of lagoons, such as Sawli, Al Baleed, Ad Dahareez, Atheeb and Salalah, where you can see large numbers of flamingos. As for lovers of diving and water skiing, they can rest assured that the shores of this governorate are among the best in the Sultanate. You can easily access these shores through well paved roads and other services.

Salalah, Oman

Jabal Shams

Jabal Shams (Sun Mountain)


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This is the highest peak in the Arabian Peninsula, rising to an altitude of 3,004 metres above sea level, and has a number of versants (slopes) and summits. Every time a tourist reaches a versant, he’ll find that it leads him to another, until he reaches the mountain peak.

Life on the summit is different from what most people are used to, as the weather is mild in summer and cold in winter. Close to the peak lies a deep chasm called the "An Nakhr Balcony", one of the most beautiful places tourists visit. It is a deep ravine in the heart of the rocks that can be viewed from the top, which directly overlooks the ravine. At the bottom of the ravine rock formations chiselled into different forms by erosion lie at breathtaking depth.

Tourist guest houses have been built where the visitor can spend time enjoying the serenity of this scenic mountain.

Jabal Shams is so called because it is the first place to greet sunlight at dawn and the last to say farewell at dusk.


Wahiba Sands

The Sharqiya Sands (formerly known as Wahiba Sands, or Ramlat al-Wahiba) is a region of desert in Oman.The region was named for the Bani Wahiba tribe. The area is defined by a boundary of 180 kilometers (110 mi) north to south and 80 kilometers (50 mi) east to west with an area of 12,500 square kilometers (4,800 sq mi). The desert has been of scientific interest since a 1986 expedition by the Royal Geographical Society documented the diversity of the terrain, the flora and fauna, noting 16,000 invertebrates as well as 200 species of other wildlife, including avifauna. They also documented 150 species of native flora.

Wahiba Sands, Oman

Jabal Akdhar

The Jebel AkhdarJabal Akhdar or Al Jabal Al Akhdar (Arabicالجبل الأخضر‎ meaning "the Green Mountain"), is part of the Al Hajar Mountains range in Oman, which extends about 300 km (186 mi) northwest to southeast, between 50–100 km (31–62 mi) inland from the Gulf of Oman coast. It is one of Oman’s most spectacular areas. The highest point, Jabal Shams (Mountain of the Sun), is around 3,000 metres (around 9,800 feet) high. It is the highest point in Oman and the whole of eastern Arabia. It comprises the central section of the Al Hajar Mountains range, and is located around 150 km (93 mi) from Muscat.

The area is about a 45 minute drive from Nizwa and is famous for its traditional rose water extraction and agricultural products including pomegranateapricotpeach and walnut. The Jebel is mostly inhabited by the ancient Arab tribe Bani Riyam (al Riyamy). Most descendants of the tribe are now in nearby towns such as Nizwa and Izki; some inhabit Ibra.The range is mostly desert, but at higher altitudes it eceives around 300 mm (12 in) of precipitationannually, moist enough to allow the growth of shrubs and trees and support agriculture. It is this that gives the mountains their 'green' name.[1] Cool summers provide the visitor with fresh air surrounded by breathtaking stones.

Between 1957 and 1959, the area became a site of the Jebel Akhdar War, a conflict between Omani forces loyal to the sultan of Oman (aided by British soldiers, including the Special Air Service) and Saudi Arabian-backed rebel forces of the inland Imamate of Oman.

In August 2011, Sultan Qaboos designated Jebel Akhdar a nature reserve in a bid to conserve its unique yet fragile biodiversity. A decree issued by the Royal Court established the ‘Jebel Akhdar Sanctuary for Natural Sceneries’.

Since 2011, the mountain has featured as the principal climb in the Tour of Oman road bicycle race.[2] In the area several important rock art sites, whose oldest figures date back to 6000 years ago, have been discovered and studied